Note: This post uses words like object, subject, verb, noun, noun phrase, etc. Check out this site if you need a refresher on these terms.
I got a question from a member of a Klingon forum asking how to translate "the sleeping targ" so I thought I'd write up a little guide to translating these kinds of ideas.
In the Klingon grammar guide these kinds of phrases are called "relative clauses" and are created using the -bogh suffix. Here's a couple of examples:
As you can see, these phrases follow a very simple formula:
You simply replace the verb and the noun with the correct two words.
Once you have the phrase you use it in a sentence as if it was a single noun:
Now that we have the basics, we can build up on them. Let's look at these phrases:
In these phrases we added another word, qagh, to show what the Klingon is actually eating. We also added -'e' to the phrases. -'e' is normally used to mark the main concept of a sentence, as seen here:
qagh Sop ghaH'e' As for HIM, HE eats the serpent worms (ghaH he/she)
qagh'e' Sop ghaH As for the serpent worms, he eats them.
In phrases with -bogh in them, -'e' marks the "head noun". The "head noun" is the one that we most concerned about in the phrase. So in the two phrases above we see the follow:
If we use them in a sentance, the difference becomes more obvious:
As we can see, the -'e' makes a lot of difference and allows us to talk about very specfic ideas. In the above sentances it lets us refer to the Klingon doing the eating or the food that's being eaten. This usage doesn't have a nice formula like the simple -bogh sentences, but here's a couple of meta-sentences that may help:
There is only one concept left to talk about and that's when we want to talk about nouns that are having something done to them, but we don't know who the doer is. For example:
qagh Sopbogh vIlegh I see the serpent worms that are eaten
The noun that is being verb-ed = noun verb-bogh
Well that's it for -bogh. Please ask if you have any questions. I'll end this guide with a few examples to practice translating: